In the stiff substrates (dark green), cytoskeletal structures are dense and inflexible (red rods). This makes it difficult for extracellular vesicles (orange dots) to exit bodies (brown circles). In soft substrates (light green), these structures are shorter, bendable, and more spread out, making the cell much more porous and conducive to the secretion of the particles, which can potentially be used to heal damaged lungs. (Image: Lenzini, et al.)

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